Where is the pancreas, what are its normal sizes, functions in the human body, possible diseases: description

Every human organ is important and necessary. In this article, you will find out why the pancreas is needed.

Pancreas refers to the most important organs of the digestive system, and, without exaggeration, the general condition of a person depends on its work, because it is here that insulin production occurs. What you need to know about the pancreas in order not to miss the slightest signs of malfunctions in its work?

Where is the pancreas located?

  • The direct location of the pancreas is abdomen. It is located in the region of the first or second vertebrae related to the lumbar spine.
  • It is connected to the back wall of the stomach, to which it is attached, and the retention of its necessary location in the cavity is provided by its surrounding the duodenum.
  • Iron itself consists of heads (her direction is the bile duct) body (located behind the stomach (or rather, at the bottom of the stomach) and tailgoing towards left hypochondria. In general, you need to understand that the location of the pancreas is up to 10 cm above the navel.

Normal pancreas sizes

Average pancreas adults reaches 22-25 cm, and weighs up to 80 g. Its width reaches 2.5 cm. As for the head and tail of the gland, they can reach 35 mm.

  • These parameters are usually determined using ultrasound, which takes into account the clarity and evenness of the contours, the absence of formations.
  • If the sizes are slightly different, this may be due to age, with an increase in which the pancreas decreases, but it can also indicate the onset of a disease.

Functions and enzymes of the pancreas in the body

  • Pancreas associated with digestive and endocrine systems of the body. In the first case, it produces enzymes that break down a lot of fats (lipase), carbohydrates (amylase) and proteins (trypsin, chymotrypsin), which come in the form of food. In the second - produces insulin.
  • Enzymes are sent to the duodenum, while still in an inactive form. If along the way they arise a rock (for example, in the bile duct), blockage occurs, pressure increase in the pancreas and premature activation of enzymes. Thus, they begin to work already in the pancreas, destroying it.
  • This leads to inflammation (pancreatitis) and insufficient production of enzymes and hormones, including insulin.
  • The toxins released in this case along with enzymes can enter the bloodstream and thus provoke a disease of the heart, liver, kidneys and even the brain.

Possible pancreatic diseases: description

  • Pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas - A disease that gives rise to many other pancreatic diseases. It is characterized by acute severe pain in the upper abdomen, giving back in the back, sternum.
  • These symptoms amplified when eating, manifestations of nausea or vomiting are also possible.
  • Pancreatitis can be acute, in three manifestations. In edematous, relatively mild, the main attack lasts up to a week. With sterile pancreatic necrosis, cells die, and with an infected one, microorganisms penetrate into the pancreatic tissue, and toxic substances penetrate into the blood. This is fraught with serious consequences: thrombosis, renal or pulmonary insufficiency, sepsis, etc.
  • At chronic pancreatitis irreversible changes in the gland and a violation of its functions occur. It is characterized either by constant pain in the upper abdomen, or by its attacks, especially after eating. The necessary enzymes and hormones are not produced enough, which leads to new diseases, including diabetes mellitus.
  • Doctors describe this situation as enzyme deficiency which leads to disruption of the digestive process and to the fact that nutrients are poorly absorbed into the intestines. From here - manifestations of flatulence, diarrhea, bloating in the abdomen. Feces become unformed, undigested food particles are often present in it.
  • Due to the fact that a sufficient amount of necessary substances does not enter the bloodstream, hypotrophy muscles, the appearance of loose edema and a state of exhaustion are possible, and a lack of vitamins leads to osteoporosis, problems with the condition of hair and skin. A person becomes susceptible to infections, interruptions in cardiac activity are possible.
  • The largest danger of pancreatitis consists in the fact that its signs appear gradually and practically do not manifest themselves. According to statistics, they appear even with almost complete disruption of the pancreas.

How and where does the pancreas hurt?

  • As already mentioned, pain with pancreatic problems can be dull aching character, and can be acute, cutting type - in case of advanced disease, when the development of such a danger as peritonitis.
  • Acute pain happens herpes zosterthat occurs in upper abdomen and surrenders to lower back and left hypochondrium, and the swelling that has arisen during this also creates a feeling of fullness and pressure on the ribs from the inside.
  • At chronic pancreatitis pain occurs, as a rule, after eating, it is not so pronounced, but no less dangerous, since such a condition often leads to a pancreatic tumor and swelling of the surrounding tissues.

Causes of Pancreatic Inflammation

  • In addition to the chemical processes described above in the body, the violation of which leads to pancreatic inflammation, there are other factors that adversely affect her condition.
  • These include alcohol abuse, possible food poisoning, heredity, diseases caused by viruses, fungi or the presence of worms.
Causes of the disease
  • Surgical interventions and related complications can also adversely affect the state of the pancreas.

Watch the video: Pancreatitis - Acute (December 2019).